Water softening is widely spread in industrial and domestic applications. In this post we explain the basics of this technology
Many reverse osmosis concepts are complex and often misunderstood. Let us walk you through the main tips and tricks of this desalination technology
Feedwater analysis has always been the most important criterion to design and estimate the performance of Reverse Osmosis desalination plants, however it is common to find unpredictable and inconsistent feeedwater salinity with frequent and significant variations.
All Watercore RO systems incorporate a PLC that controls the concentrate-valve and automatically adjusts and optimises key performance parameters.
Reverse osmosis foulants are small particles and bacteria found in the system feed water that get trapped and accumulate on the membrane surface, preventing water permeability and reducing the membrane and whole RO equipment performance.
RO membrane cleaning is recommended when there is an increase in salt passage or pressure that can be linked to membrane fouling, just before any medium or long term shutdown or as part of the scheduled RO maintenance protocol, typically every 3 to 6 month.
A pilot plant is a collection of equipment and other materials designed to simulate what will happen on a full-scale water treatment process.
Pilot testing offers the flexibility to evaluate the performance of a scale plant that will work in real site conditions. It will show what needs to be improved and where weaknesses are.
How to remove Chlorine (dechlorination of water) from the feed water before Reverse Osmosis Desalination or prior to Discharge
Concentration of residual Chlorine after disinfection or oxidation is often too high for distribution, discharge to the environment or for other downstream processes such as reverse osmosis desalination.
Amongst other methods, chemical dechlorination by means of Sodium Bisulphite (NaHSO3) is very common for various reasons:
The reaction between Chlorine and Sodium Bisulfite is practically immediate, comes at a lower costs than other chemicals and is widely available
The use of soft water as cooling tower source water is beneficial in many ways, eliminating Calcium precipitates, providing a natural passivation method that prevents corrosion and increasing the number of concentration cycles with less chemicals.
Water softening is one of the most beneficial water management options for cooling towers
Cooling towers draw air through the internal fill to provide the evaporative conditions that are responsible for water cooling.
Rule-of-thumb says that around 900–1800 m3 of air is in contact with each m3 of water.
The air normally contains particles of dust, soil, organic matter and other small contaminants in suspension. These particles are dragged from the air, carried by the cooling tower water stream and settle to the bottom.
Sidestream filtration is an economical and effective solution for cooling systems
Modern industrial RO desalination systems are fully automated and staffed only in case of malfunctions, alarms or membrane cleaning. Sensors play a major role in the reverse osmosis control process.