Hardness in water is the sum of the concentrations of Calcium and Magnesium. Other ions produce hardness too: Iron, Manganese, Strontium, Barium, Zinc, and Aluminum, however these ions are generally not present in significant quantities and are not included when measuring water hardness.
Hardness is generally expressed in units of milligrams per liter (mg/L) as Calcium Carbonate (CaCO3). An expression also used to define hardness in the context of ion-exchange water softeners is grains per gallon (1 grain per gallon of hardness is equal to 17.1 mg/L as CaCO3).
|Hardness Level||mg/L as CaCO3||Grains per gallon (gpg)|
|Soft||0 - 75||0 - 4.4|
|Moderate||75 - 150||4.4 - 8.8|
|Hard||150 - 300||8.8 - 17|
|Very Hard||>300||> 17|
Resin or ion exchange water treatment replaces Calcium and Magnesium ions with Sodium. Basically the incoming water passes through a resin filter and the resin ‘traps’ the Calcium ions, or limescale, from the solution and exchanges them for ions of sodium. As Sodium has a higher solubility than Calcium or Magnesium in water, this exercise translates into higher water quality.
In contrast to the ion exchange resin water softeners, membrane water softeners use low-pressure Nanofiltration membranes, similar to reverse osmosis membranes, to remove bivalent ions from water. As a rule of thumbs these type of commercial and industrial water softening membranes reject 99.8% of sulfate and bivalent ions while passing other components, particularly monovalent ions such as Chloride and Sodium, allowing for ultra-low-pressure operations.
REVERSE OSMOSIS DESALINATION
IRON AND MANGANESE FILTERS
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