Watercore engineers work with farmers to provide the best solutions and treatment for irrigation water. Water quality is often not good enough for irrigation what has an impact on the farm productivity. Normal problems linked to poor water quality are low plant growth and blocked irrigation pipes.
|Factor||Typical Threshold||Effect in Plant and Equipment||Solution|
|Chloride or Sodium in Water||Cl < 175 mg/L|
Na < 115 mg/L
|Leaf injury/burn, defoliation & crop yield reduction. Development of poor soil physical conditions.||RO Desalination|
|Water Salinity||crop dependent||Limits the root ability to absorb water. Crop reduction.||RO Desalination|
|High / Low PH||6 < PH < 7.5||Nutrients imbalance, corrosion in pipes, carbonate scaling. Reduction in pesticide efficiency||PH controllers|
|Iron in water||> 0.2 mg/L may cause clogging of irrigation systems. |
> 5 mg/L may produce light-brown spotting on plants
|Light-brown spotting on plants. Discolour leaves. Poor transpiration and photosynthesis. Reduced access to phosphorus (essential nutrient)||Iron & Manganese Filters|
|Manganese in water||Mn < 0.2 mg/L||At high concentrations Manganese|
is highly toxic to plants, especially to root growth.
|Iron & Manganese Filters|
|Water Hardness||Hardness < 150 mg/l of CaCO3||Unwanted precipitates may cause damage to plants, soil and equipment.||Water Softeners|
|Turbidity in water||Clogged nozzles/pipes. Bacteria.||Sediment and Turbidity Filers|
|Pathogens (viruses, bacteria & fungi)||Crop damage||Water Disinfection|
Plant tolerance to salinity will define the ability of plants to survive and produce prosperous yields under different irrigation conditions. Plants respond to water salinity in the root zone from two main perspectives:
The point at which this happens depends on the type of plant, some crops are more tolerant to salts than others. Tolerance to water salinity is also lower during germination and seedling.
It is important to highlight though that an extremely low salinity in irrigation water can have adverse consequences to the soil stability, leading to soil leaching (solution and loss of water-soluble plant nutrients from the soil).
Typical salinity ratings for irrigation water based on electrical conductivity are :
EC (dS/m) Plant suitability Examples 0.65 Sensitive crops Bean, Strawberry, Raspberry, Carrot, Eggplant 0.65−1.3 Moderately sensitive crops Peanut, Sugarcane, Avocado, Apple, Citrus fruit, Grape 1.3−2.7 Moderately tolerant crops Rice, Fig, Olive, Cucumber,Spinach, Tomato 2.7−4.5 Tolerant crops Zucchini, Sunflower, Wheat 4.5−8.1 Very tolerant crops Cotton, Barley >8.1 Not suitable for irrigation
Our adaptive RO units can adjust the conductivity in your irrigation water to match your crop limit. Oposite to standard RO units, this technology reduces the overall water use and rejection.
The chlorides of sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium are highly soluble in water.
Chloride behaves similarly to sodium with similar foliar symptoms and toxicity at high concentrations.
A high proportion of sodium in soil (sodicity) is also a condition that degrades soil properties by making the it more erodible and restricting water entry.
Yield declines attributed to chloride and sodium levels in waters are also closely related to an osmotic effect, hence threshold values for salinity should be used as a guideline.
Sand, silt, clay and organic matter are the most common particulates carried by the water in the form of suspended solids. This is most common at high flow rates in surface waters. Groundwater tends to contain limited organic matter and solids in suspension.
Chemical precipitation of calcium and magnesium carbonates and sulfates or oxidised iron is another form of suspended solids commonly related to groundwaters.
Filtration is the most effective method of removal of particulate material from the water source.
REVERSE OSMOSIS DESALINATION
IRON AND MANGANESE FILTERS
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